Measurements of respiration rates can be performed with our sensors in a variety of matrixes. Typically, a closed chamber (air-tight) with a regulated temperature is used and PyroScience sensors spots or fiber sensors are integrated in the measurement chamber.

Our REDFLASH technology allows measurements in low-light environments and less stress of the examined animals.

Using our solution, the respiration rates were measured of:

  • Enclosed sediments, soils or biofilms
  • Measurement of respiration of plants, animals, algae or fish

Our ready-to-use sensor respiration vials were specially designed for this application. These vials are available with integrated oxygen, pH and temperature sensor stripes with different volumes and can be closed air-tight. Addition of compounds is possible by puncturing the septum in the lid with injection needles.

Related Peer-Reviewed Publications


The OptoReg system: a simple and inexpensive solution for regulating water oxygen
Ern & Jutfelt 2024, Conservation Physiology

A novel method for measuring acute thermal tolerance in fish embryos
Cowan et al. (2023). Ecoevorxiv (preprint).

The relationships between specific dynamic action, nutrient retention and feed conversion ratio in farmed freshwater Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Elvy et al. (2023). Journal of Fish Biology

Seasonal, environmental and individual effects on hypoxia tolerance of eastern sand darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)
Firth et al. (2023). Conservation Physiology

Invader at the edge—Genomic origins and physiological differences of round gobies across a steep urban salinity gradient
Green et al. (2023). Evolutionary Applications

Carryover effects of environmental stressors influence the life performance of brown trout
Louhi et al. (2023). Ecosphere

Metabolic Responses and Resilience to Environmental Challenges in the Sedentary Batrachoid Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Molina et al. (2023). Animals

Normoxia exposure reduces hemoglobin concentration and gill size in a hypoxia-tolerant tropical freshwater fish
Mucha et al. (2023). Environmental Biology of Fishes

Lack of detrimental effects of ocean acidification and warming on proximate composition, fitness and energy budget of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)
Oliveira er al. (2023). Science of The Total Environment

Long-term sustained swimming improves swimming performance in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, with and without spinal scoliosis
Prescott et al. (2023). Aquaculture

Constant temperature and fluctuating temperature have distinct effects on hypoxia tolerance in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)
Ridgway, M. R., & Scott, G. R. (2023). Journal of Experimental Biology

Seasonal variability in resilience of a coral reef fish to marine heatwaves and hypoxia
Tran, L. L., & Johansen, J. L. (2023). Global Change Biology

Population variability in thermal performance of pre-spawning adult Chinook salmon
Van Wert et al. (2023). Conservation Physiology

An unusually high upper thermal acclimation potential for rainbow trout
Adams et al. 2022, Conservation Physiology
Intraspecific variability in thermal tolerance: a case study with coastal cutthroat trout
Anlauf-Dunn et al. 2022, Conservation Physiology

Plasticity to ocean warming is influenced by transgenerational, reproductive, and developmental exposure in a coral reef fish
Bernal et al. 2022, Evolutionary applications

Exploring relationships between oxygen consumption and biologger‐derived estimates of heart rate in two warmwater piscivores
Doherty et al. 2022, Journal of Fish Biology

Increased parasite load is associated with reduced metabolic rates and escape responsiveness in pumpkinseed sunfish host.
Guitard et al. 2022, bioRxiv

Effects of elevated temperature on the performance and survival of pacific crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris)
Lang et al. 2022, Marine Biology

The effect of pregnancy on metabolic scaling and population energy demand in the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis
Moffett et al. 2022, Integrative and Comparative Biology
Reduced physiological plasticity in a fish adapted to stable temperatures
Morgan et al. 2022, PNAS
Temperature and size-dependency of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) oxygen requirement and tolerance
Remen et al. 2022, Aquaculture
Thermal preference does not align with optimal temperature for aerobic scope in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Ripley et al. 2022, Journal of Experimental Biology

Cardiorespiratory adjustments to chronic environmental warming improve hypoxia tolerance in European perch (Perca fluviatilis)
Ekström et al. 2021, Journal of Experimental Biology

Thermal acclimation of tropical coral reef fishes to global heat waves
Johansen et al. 2021, eLife

A brain‐infecting parasite impacts host metabolism both during exposure and after infection is established
Nadler et al. 2021, Functional Ecology

Effects of food limitation on growth, body condition and metabolic rates of non-native blue catfish
Nepal et al. 2021, Conservation Physiology

Normoxic limitation of maximal oxygen consumption rate, aerobic scope and cardiac performance in exhaustively exercised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
McArley et al. 2021, Journal of Experimental Biology

Hydrogen peroxide treatment of Atlantic salmon temporarily decreases oxygen consumption but has negligible effects on hypoxia tolerance and aerobic performance
Wood et al. 2021, Aquaculture

Experimental support towards a metabolic proxy in fish using otolith carbon isotopes
Martino et al. 2020, Journal of Experimental Biology

Acute high temperature exposure impairs hypoxia tolerance in an intertidal fish
McArley et al. 2020, PLOS One

Hypoxia alters vulnerability to capture and the potential for trait-based selection in a scaled-down trawl fishery
Thambithurai et al. 2020, Conservation Physiology

Breathing with fins: do the pectoral fins of larval fishes play a respiratory role?
Zimmer et al. 2020, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

Valid oxygen uptake measurements: using high r2 values with good intentions can bias upward the determination of standard metabolic rate
Chabot et al. 2020, Fish Biology

Post-exercise respirometry underestimates maximum metabolic rate in juvenile salmon
Raby et al. 2020, Conservation Physiology

Rising temperatures may drive fishing-induced selection of low-performance phenotypes
Clark et al., 2017, Scientific Reports

Methods matter: considering locomotory mode and respirometry technique when estimating metabolic rates of fishes
Rummer et al., 2016, Conservation Physiology

The effect of temperature and ration size on specific dynamic action and production performance in juvenile hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios)
Khan et al., 2015, Aquaculture

Aerobic scope predicts dominance during early life in a tropical damselfish
Killen et al., 2014, Functional Ecology

All puffed out: do pufferfish hold their breath while inflated?
McGee and Clark, 2014, Biology Letters

Functional role of biofouling linked to aquaculture facilities in Mediterranean enclosed locations
Montalto et al. 2020, Aquaculture Environment Interactions

Dityrosine formation via reactive oxygen consumption yields increasingly recalcitrant humic‐like fluorescent organic matter in the ocean
Paerl et al. 2020, Limnology and Oceanography Letters.


The metabolic underpinnings of temperature-dependent predation in a key marine predator
Csik et al. (2023). Frontiers in Marine Science

Physiological Characterization of the Coral Holobiont Using a New Micro-Respirometry Tool
Quigley et al. (2023). Journal of Visualized Experiments

Estimation of nitrifying and heterotrophic bacterial activity in biofilm formed on RAS biofilter carriers by respirometry
Qi et al. 2022, Aquaculture

Respiration Rates, Metabolic Demands and Feeding of Ephyrae and Young Medusae of the Rhizostome Rhopilema nomadica
Kuplic et al. 2021, Diversity

Respiration by “marine snow” at high hydrostatic pressure: Insights from continuous oxygen measurements in a rotating pressure tank
Stief et al. 2021, Limnology and Oceanography

Patterns of dark respiration in aquatic systems
Mantikci et al. 2020, Marine and Freshwater Research

Do males and females respond differently to ocean acidification? An experimental study with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus
Marčeta et al. 2020, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 

Bacterial Respiration used as a Proxy to evaluate the Bacterial Load in Cooling Towers
Toman et al. 2020, Sensors

Cellular respiration, oxygen consumption, and trade-offs of the jellyfish Cassiopea sp. in response to temperature change
Al-jbour et al., 2017, Journal of Sea Research

Sediment resuspension effects on dissolved organic carbon fluxes and microbial metabolic potentials in reservoirs
Dadi et al., 2017, Aquatic Sciences

Oxygen dynamics in shelf seas sediments incorporating seasonal variability
Hicks et al., 2017, Biogeochemistry

Discovery of a resting stage in the harmful, brown-tide-causing pelagophyte, Aureoumbra lagunensis: a mechanism potentially facilitating recurrent blooms and geographic expansion
Kang et al., 2017, Journal of Phycology

Thermal stress effects on energy resource allocation and oxygen consumption rate in the juvenile sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1833)
Kühnhold et al., 2017, Aquaculture

Carbon Bioavailability in a High Arctic Fjord Influenced by Glacial Meltwater, NE Greenland
Paulsen et al., 2017, Frontiers in Marine Science

Metabolic rates are elevated and influenced by maternal identity during the early, yolk-dependent, post-hatching period in an estuarine turtle, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin)
Rowe et al., 2017, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology

Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis
Tang and Riisgård, 2017, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments
Evrard et al., 2013, Biogeochemistry

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